Minggu, 27 Desember 2015

Cultivation techniques Catfish :)

 In this post I tried to review the techniques or ways of catfish culture, after we know how the technique of cultivation of tilapia, goldfish and carp fish farming techniques. Regarding the catfish culture technique includes several activities, broadly divided into two activities, namely breeding and enlargement.

Both of these types of activities are generally carried out by the public has not been popular, because most still rely

fishing activities in nature (river, lake, reservoir, etc.) to meet the demand for catfish. Seeding activity is an attempt to produce seeds at a certain size. The final product in the form of seed of a particular size, which generally is the period after the seed nursery. Catfish seed can be obtained from the catch in public waters. Usually towards the dry season early in the day by using fishing gear nets or nets.

Seeds collected in a container, and treated with caution for 2 weeks. If the water in the reservoir has been soiled, it should be replaced immediately with clean water, and try to avoid sunburn. Before the seeds spread, first nurtured in the net for 1 month, then moved into hampang prepared. Broadly speaking catfish hatchery operations include the following activities:

a) Selection of broodstock ready Pijah.
b) Preparation hormone / pituitary gland of the donor fish, ie carp.
c) Mating injection (induced breeding).
d) Ordering (striping).
e) Hatching eggs.
f) Maintenance larvae.
g) Separating.
h) Harvesting.

In the growing cultivation, hatcheries and rearing are often separated by a little distance away. Removal of seeds from hatcheries to the enlargement require special handling in order to seed survived. The success of the transport of fish seed are usually very closely related to the physical and chemical conditions of the water, especially the dissolved oxygen, NH3, CO2, pH, and temperature of the water.

1. Preparation Facility and Equipment Aquaculture Catfish

Location sought pool close to the water source and free floods. The pool was built in the sloping land with a slope of 2-5% to facilitate irrigation pond by gravity.

a) aircraft maintenance pool Catfish
Spacious pool and intensity depending on the number of aircraft management. For example, for a 100 kg aircraft requires an area of ​​500 square meters if only relying on natural feed and bran. Meanwhile, when fed with pellets, then to 100 kg require extensive parent 150-200 square meters only.

Rectangular shape with the pool should be bricked wall or ground pool with a coated woven bamboo inside. Water inlet doors can be fitted with PVC and juice, while for the water outlay should be shaped monic.

b) Swimming spawning catfish
The place can be a spawning ground pool or a tub wall. Size / large spawning pool depending on the number stem cultivated with an rectangular shape. As a rule of thumb that for one breeding weighing 3 kg require extensive pool of about 18 m2 with 18 pieces of fibers / kakaban. Bottom of the pool sloped towards disposal, to ensure that the bottom of the pond can be drained.

The door can be pralon income and expenditure can also use pralon (if the size of small ponds) or door monic. Form pool hatching basically the same as the spawning pond and often also for hatchery use spawning ponds. At the hatchery pond arranged so that the incoming water can spread to areas that no eggs.

c) Swimming nursery Catfish
Good pond shape is rectangular. For nursery activity is usually some pools that first nursery with an area of ​​25-500 m2 and advanced nursery 500-1000 m2 per plot. Water intake and expenditure could pralon / disposal with shaped doors monic.

Kemalir made pond bottom (base line) and near the expenditure made puddles. Kemalir function is the gathering place seed at harvest and pools to facilitate the arrest of the seed. bottom of the pool sloped towards disposal. Additional plots that have high turbidity water (river water) then need to be made like precipitation and filtration basin.

2. Breeding Catfish

a) Setting Seed Catfish
Seeds to be cultivated can be derived from the results from a small pond maintenance or the catch of the wild when the spawning season arrives. The ideal stem from an enlarged herd of adult catfish pond so it can be chosen for the parent who is really good quality.

b) treatment and seed treatment Catfish
Parent spawning catfish to be used specifically should be maintained in a floating cage. During maintenance, the parent fish fed a special diet that contains a lot of protein. Attempts to obtain stem mature eggs that have been done by the Sub Research Institute for Freshwater Fishing Palembang is to provide food shaped blobs (pasta) of ingredients for chicken feed with the composition of fish meal 35%, fine bran 30%, brewers rice 25%, 10% soy flour, as well as vitamins and minerals 0.5%.

Food is given five days a week as much as 5% every day with the distribution of the morning and afternoon 2,5% 2,5%. In addition, given also the trash twice a week as much as 10% of the weight of the parent fish. This step is done to accelerate the maturity of the gonad.

The characteristics of the parent catfish are ripe and ready for spawning gonad is as follows:

a. Female parent Catfish

- Age three years.
- The size of 1.5-2 kg.
- Stomach enlarges toward the anus.
- Stomach feels soft and smooth when in touch.
- Cloaca swollen and dark red.
- The skin on the abdomen flabby and thin.
- If around the cloaca pressed will come out a few eggs are round in shape and size of uniform.

b. Male parent Catfish

- Age two years.
- The size of 1.5-2 kg.
- Skin flabby stomach and thin.
- When sorted akankeluar white semen.
- Gender swollen and dark red.

Seed catfish aged 1 day moved into the aquarium measuring 80 cm x 45 cm x 45 cm. Each aquarium is filled with water boreholes that have been aerated. Fish stocking density is 500 fish per aquarium. Aerator placed in each aquarium that needs oxygen to seed can be fulfilled. To maintain a stable room temperature and the temperature of the water used heater or stove can use to save money. Seed day old should not be fed extra from outside because they still have food reserves in the form of yolk sac or egg yolk.

On the third day, the seeds were given supplementary food such as fish emulsion boiled chicken egg yolk. Furthermore gradually replaced with live food such as Moina cyprinacea or commonly known as water fleas and mosquito larvae. Catfish enlargement can be done in the pond, floating nets, through a system of pen and in cages.

a) Enlargement of catfish in the pond can be done through monoculture and polyculture system.

b) In the enlargement catfish in floating nets, things that need to be considered are: the location of maintenance, how to use floating nets, how the condition of the waters and the water quality as well as the enlargement process.

c) In the enlargement catfish pen system, need to be considered: site selection, water quality, how the application of such a system, stocking and feeding as well as control and harvesting.

d) In the enlargement catfish in cages, to consider the problem:
site selection, seeding, supplementary feeding, controlling and harvesting. Hampang can be made of mesh, rubber, bamboo or wire ram equipped with a pole or stump that is attached to the bottom waters. A suitable location for mounting hampang:

± water depth of 0.5-3 m with a depth fluctuations of no more than 50 cm, the flow is not too heavy, but enough for the circulation of water in hampang. Uncontaminated waters and basically a little muddy. Protected from the waves and strong winds and protected from pests, diseases and predators (predator). In waters essentially rocky, ballast should be used to help tighten the net. The distance between the poles of bamboo / wood around
0.5-1 m.

3. Maintenance Enlargement Catfish

a). Fertilization Catfish
Fertilization pond and aims to improve the productivity of the pond, that is by stimulating the growth of natural food sebanyakbanyaknya. Fertilizer commonly used is manure or green manure with a dose of 50-700 g / m2

b). Feeding catfish
Feeding is done 2 times a day (morning and afternoon). The amount of food given per day as much as 3-5% of total body weight pet fish. The amount of food is always changing every month, according to the weight gain of fish in hampang. This can be determined by weighing 5-10 fish samples taken from fish
maintained (of the sample).

c). Maintenance Swimming and Pond Catfish
During maintenance, the fish can be given additional food in the form of pellets every day and can also be given small fish / residual (trash fish) or the rest of the kitchen is given 3-4 days to stimulating appetite.

 Picture 1,2, and 3 catfish :)