In terms of quality, the chicken meat has a high nutritional value compared to other livestock meat. Flesh is soft, bright red color, clean and attractive, has a complete zest acid, and easily processed. The meat in a neutral religious party, another case with beef for Hindus, and pork for Muslims. And in terms of economical, especially chicken pieces or aya country that has been popular as a broiler chicken can be cultivated efficiently. For broiler is the fastest livestock could be cut compared with other livestock.
Broiler is a type of rooster or a young female aged about 6-8 weeks, intensively reared, in order to obtain optimum meat production
Genetically, broilers deliberately created such that within a relatively short time can be utilized results. Even today the farmers market much earlier than the provisions chickens aged 8 weeks.
They generally begin selling chickens around the age of 6-7 weeks, in order to fulfill the tastes of consumers, because the age of broiler chickens is not a lot of experience accumulation of fat.
Here are sundries broiler farming begins with a brief history of the broiler, center broiler farming, the types of broiler, the benefits of broiler, the location requirements broiler farming, technical guidelines broiler farming, pests and diseases of broiler and others.
A BRIEF HISTORY
Broiler called broilers, which is a kind of superior race results of a cross from the nations chicken that has high productivity, especially in producing chicken meat. Actually this popular new broiler chickens in Indonesia since the 1980s in which authorities declared panggalakan ruminant meat consumption which at the time was increasingly difficult existence. Until now broiler chickens have been known Indonesian people with different strengths. Only 5-6 weeks can be harvested. By maintaining a relatively short time and profitable, so many new breeders and seasonal breeders are popping up in various parts of Indonesia.
Chicken has developed very rapidly in every country. In Indonesia broiler chicken farming has also been found in almost every province
With a wide range broiler strains that have been circulating in the market, farmers do not need to worry in determining his choice. For all types of strains that have been circulating has a relatively sama.Artinya productivity if there is a difference, the difference is not flashy or very small. In determining what option strain will be maintained, the farmer can request a list of productivity or achievements of seeds sold in Poultry Shoup. The type strains of broiler that many in the market are: Super 77, Tegel 70, ISA, Kim cross, Lohman 202, Hyline, Vdett, Missouri, Hubbard, Shaver Starbro, Pilch, Yabro, Goto, Arbor arcres, Tatum, Indian river, Hybro, Cornish, Brahma, Langshans, Hypeco-Broiler, Ross, Marshall "m", Euribrid, AA 70, H & N, Sussex, Bromo, CP 707.
The benefits of raising broiler among others, include:
• Provision of animal protein needs
• Chargers future retirement free time
• Education and training (training) skills among adolescents
• Savings in the old days
• Adequate family needs (profit motive)
REQUIREMENTS FOR LOCATIONS
• The location is far enough away from the hustle / housing residents.
• The location is easily accessible from the marketing centers.
• The selected location is settled, meaning not easily distracted by any other purposes other than for the farm.
TECHNICAL GUIDELINES FOR RAISING
Before raising effort began, a farmer is obliged to understand the 3 (three) elements of the production are: management (management of farm businesses), breeding (breeding) and feeding (fodder / feed)
1. Preparation Facility and Equipment
3. The cage system that is ideal for chicken farming races include:
• Requirements temperatures ranging between 32.2 to 35 degrees C,
• The humidity ranged between 60-70%, lighting / heating enclosure in accordance with existing rules,
• The layout of the cage in order to get sunlight in the morning and not against the direction of the winds, a model adapted to the age of the chicken coop,
• For puppies up to the age of 2 weeks or 1 month of use a cage box, to chicken teenager ± 1 month to 2 or 3 months on stable box for chickens are bred and grown to the cage postal atapun bateray cage.
• For the construction of the enclosure does not have the expensive materials, an important strong, clean and durable.
• Litter (flooring). Flooring / litter should be in the dry state, then there is no leaking roof and rainwater nothing makes even high winds. Up to 10 cm thick litter, litter materials used a mixture of bran / chaff with a slight taste of lime and sand, or wood shavings hasi with a length between 3-5 cm to substitute bran / chaff.
• breeders or brooder. The tool is circular or rectangular area range 1-3 m with a heater in the middle. Its function as a hen that warms when newly hatched chicks.
• The perch (if necessary). Perch for a rest / sleep, made close to the wall and cultivated dirt fall to the floor easy to clean from the outside. Be closed to avoid the wind and located lower than a place to lay eggs.
• Places to eat, drink and grit. Places to eat and drink should be enough, the material of bamboo, aluminum or any strong and do not leak nor rust. For grit with a special box
Tools including medical devices chicken routine such as injections, surgical scissors, knife cut a small operation, and others.
Animals kept must meet the following requirements:
• Livestock bodied on physical
• The growth and normal development
• Livestock comes from a known breeding excellence.
• No attachment of feces in the anus
Seed and Prospective Parent
There are some technical guidelines for choosing seeds / DOC (Day OldChicken) / day-old chickens:
• Chicks (DOC) derived from a healthy parent.
• Fur looks smooth and full as well as good growth.
• There were no defects in the body.
• Chicks experiences a good appetite.
• The size of normal weight, measure body weight between 35-40 grams.
• No put diduburnya feces.
Seed treatment and Prospective Parent
Made at any time, if there are symptoms of disorder in cattle that were immediately given special attention and given treatment as directed local Animal Husbandry Department or veterinarian in charge in the area concerned.
• Feeding and Drinks
• For broiler chicken feeding there are two (2) phases which starter (age 0-4 weeks) and phase finisher (age 4-6 weeks)
The quality and quantity of feed starter phase are as follows:
• The quality or nutrient content of the feed consists of 22-24% protein, 2.5% fat, 4% crude fiber, calcium (Ca) 1%, phosphorus (P) 0.7-0.9%, ME 2800-3500 kcal.
• The quantity of feed divided / classified into four (4) categories, namely the first week (aged 1-7 days) 17 g / day / head, the second week (aged 8-14 days) 43 g / day / head, the 3rd week ( age 15-21 days) 66 g / day / head and week 4 (age 22-29 days) 91 g / day / head. So the amount of feed required for each tail until the age of 4 weeks amounted to 1,520 grams.
The quality and quantity of feed finisher phase are as follows:
• The quality or nutrient content of the feed consists of protein from 18.1 to 21.2%; 2.5% fat, 4.5% crude fiber, calcium (Ca) 1%, phosphorus (P) 0.7-0.9% and energy (ME) 2900-3400 Kcal.
The quantity of feed divided / classified into four age groups, namely:
• 5th week (age 30-36 days) of 111 grams / day / cow,
• 6th week (age 37-43 days) 129 grams / day / cow,
• 7th week (age 44-50 days) 146 grams / day / cow
• 8th week (age 51-57 days) 161 g / day / head.
So the total amount of feed per chicken at the age of 30-57 days is 3,829 grams.
Provision of drinking age adjusted with chicken grouped in two (2) phases:
1. Phase starter (aged 1-29 days), drinking water needs are subdivided in each week, ie week 1 (1-7 days) of 1.8 liters / day / 100 tail; week 2 (8-14 days) of 3.1 liters / day / 100 birds, the 3rd week (15-21 days) 4.5 liters / day / 100 birds and week 4 (22-29 days) 7.7 liters / day / head. So the amount of water needed until the age of 4 weeks was as much as 122.6 liters / 100 birds. Provision of drinking water on the first day should be given extra sugar and anti-stress drugs into drinking water. Given the amount of sugar is 50 grams / liter of water.
2. Phase finisher (age 30-57 days), clustered in each week is week 5 (30-36 days) 9.5 liters / day / 100 birds, 6 weeks (37-43 days) 10 , 9 liters / day / 100 birds, week 7 (44-50 days) 12.7 liters / day / 100 birds and week 8 (51-57 days) 14.1 liters / day / head. So a total of 30-57 days drinking water as much as 333.4 liters / day / head.
Enclosure environmental hygiene (sanitation) on the farm is disease prevention efforts are the least expensive, it only takes a tenacious / skilled only. Preventive action by giving the vaccine in cattle by brand and dose according to the record label of poultry shoup. Building so that the cage can be useful effectively, building enclosure needs to be properly maintained that the cage is always cleaned and maintained / checked if there is a faulty part that immediately embroidered / repaired. Thus the efficiency can be maximized without reducing the cage enclosure requirements for the livestock kept.
PEST AND DISEASE
Symptoms: bloody stools and diarrhea, lack of appetite, wings terkulasi, dull hair shivering.
• Keeping lingkungaan, keeping the litter remains dry;
• With Tetra Chloine Capsule given by mouth; Noxal, Trident Zuco tablet dissolved in water or sulfaqui moxaline, amprolium, cxaldayocox.
Newcastle disease (NCD / New Casstle Diseae)
Symptoms: chicken difficult breathing, coughing, sneezing, snoring sounds arise, lethargic, sleepy eyes, wings terkulasi, sometimes bloody, watery stools greenish-specific symptom of "torticollis" the head twirling uncertain and paralyzed.
• Maintain environmental cleanliness and equipment contaminated with the virus, Newcastle disease vector animals, chickens that died immediately burned / disposed;
• Separate the sick chickens, prevent guests entering the farm without clothes disinfect / sterile and vaccination NCD. Until now there is no cure.
Symptoms: chicken restless, often pecking and flapping feathers as itching, decreased appetite, pale and thin.
Environmental sanitation a good chicken coop; separate the sick chickens with healthy;
using Sevin carbonate with a concentration of 0.15% which is diluted with water and then spray using Sevin carbonate with a concentration of 0.15% which is diluted with water and spray it into the body of the patient. With the use of insecticides fumigation or pengasepan volatile as Nocotine sulfate or Black leaf 40.
For broiler chicken farming, the main result is in the form of chicken meat
Enterprises broiler chickens (broilers) is in the form of feces or dirt stables and chicken feathers.
Chicken coops before cutting, usually placed in shelter cages (Houlding Ground)
Chicken slaughter carried out his neck, principally so that the blood came out whole, or about 2/3 of the neck cut off and wait 1-2 minutes. This is so good meat quality, not easily contaminated and nonperishable.
Culling or Hair Removal
The way chickens that had been cut was immersed in hot water (51,7- 54.4 ° C). Dyeing old broilers is 30 seconds. The feathers are
smooth revoked by applying wax or burned with a blue flame.
Dubut bottom cut slightly, the entire contents of the stomach (liver, intestine and gizzard) is issued. The stomach contents can be sold or be included in the prepared meats
cooked in a separate packaging.
Cut chicken legs and neck. Tunggir also deducted if not preferable. After all the viscera has been removed and the carcass has been washed, a chicken leg / thigh ditekukan below the rectum. Chicken then cooled and packaged.
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF CULTURE
Analysis of Cultivation
Basic calculation of costs incurred and income earned in this analysis, among others are:
• Type chickens are kept is the type of broiler (broiler) of strain CP.707.